1. above; up; over; elder (e.g. daughter)
- It's in the overhead compartment.
2. top; summit; head (e.g. of a staircase)
- If you stand on this stool, you can reach the top of the closet.
- Are there any pens on the desk?
4. before; previous
5. superiority; one's superior; one's elder
6. on top of that; besides; what's more; not only ... butfollowing a verb or adjective
- つよ 。
- It was cold, and, in addition, it was windy.
7. upon (further inspection, etc.); based on (and occurring after)following a verb or noun
- They acted immediately by agreement.
8. matters concerning ...; as concerns ...
9. since (i.e. "for that reason")as ～上は
10. honorable; venerableHonorific or respectful (sonkeigo), See also 父上, suffix indicating higher social standing than the speaker
11. place of one's superior (e.g. the throne)Archaism
12. emperor; sovereign; shogun; daimyoArchaism
13. noblewoman (esp. the wife of a nobleman)Archaism
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