1. above; up; over; elder (e.g. daughter)
- It's in the overhead compartment.
2. top; summit
- If you stand on this stool, you can reach the top of the closet.
3. surface; on
- Are there any pens on the desk?
4. before; previous
5. superiority; one's superior (i.e. one's elder)
6. on top of that; besides; what's more
- つよ 。
- It was cold, and, in addition, it was windy.
7. upon (further inspection, etc.); based on (and occurring after)
- They acted immediately by agreement.
8. matters concerning...; as concerns ...
9. since (i.e. "for that reason")as ...上は
10. suffix indicating higher social standingHonorific or respectful (sonkeigo), See also 父上
11. place of one's superior (i.e. the throne)Archaism
12. emperor; sovereign; shogun; daimyoArchaism
13. noblewoman (esp. the wife of a nobleman)Archaism
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