11 strokes
hand 手 (扌龵)
withdraw, draw in, hold back, refrain from, be moderate
Jōyō kanji, taught in junior high
JLPT level N1
1000 of 2500 most used kanji in newspapers


Stroke order

On reading compounds

  • 控訴 【コウソ】 appeal to a higher court, intermediate appeal
  • 控除 【コウジョ】 subtraction, deduction (e.g. tax), subsidy

Kun reading compounds

  • 控える 【ひかえる】 to be temperate in, to refrain, to abstain, to hold back, to restrain oneself from excessive ..., to make notes, to jot down (e.g. phone number), to be in preparation for, to be in waiting for, to be soon, to be in the offing, to be in a close relationship (e.g. as a backer, etc.)
  • 控え 【ひかえ】 reserve, spare, backup, note, memorandum, duplicate, copy, stub (of a ticket, etc.), receipt, waiting one's turn
  • 控え室 【ひかえしつ】 waiting room, anteroom, antechamber, green room
  • お客様控え 【おきゃくさまひかえ】 customer copy (of a receipt, etc.)


Mandarin Chinese (pinyin):
gong, gang


  • contención
  • refreno
  • moderación
  • apuntar
  • tomar nota
  • contenerse
  • refrenarse
  • moderarse


  • retirar
  • extrair
  • devolver
  • privar-se de
  • ser moderado


  • se retenir
  • s'abstenir
  • se retirer
  • réservé
  • modéré
1258 A Guide To Remembering Japanese Characters (Kenneth G. Henshall)
1301 A New Dictionary of Kanji Usage
1941 Classic Nelson (Andrew Nelson)
1658 Essential Kanji (P.G. O’Neill)
1363 Japanese Kanji Flashcards (Max Hodges and Tomoko Okazaki)
1718 Kanji and Kana (Spahn and Hadamitzky)
1835 Kanji and Kana, 2nd Edition (Spahn and Hadamitzky)
1479 Kanji in Context (Nishiguchi and Kono)
899 Kodansha Compact Kanji Guide
600 Kodansha Kanji Dictionary (Jack Halpern)
363 Kodansha Kanji Learner’s Dictionary (Jack Halpern)
453 Kodansha Kanji Learner’s Dictionary, 2nd Edition (Jack Halpern)
1329 Les Kanjis dans la tete (Yves Maniette)
12283 Morohashi
495 New Japanese English Character Dictionary (Jack Halpern)
2202 New Nelson (John Haig)
1318 Remembering The Kanji (James Heisig)
1415 Remembering The Kanji, 6th edition (James Heisig)
1440 Tuttle Kanji Cards (Alexander Kask)
1372 2001 Kanji
3c8.11 The Kanji Dictionary
1-3-8 SKIP code
5301.1 Four corner code
1-25-21 JIS X 0208-1997 kuten code
63a7 Unicode hex code