10 strokes
power, force
exertion, endeavour, encourage, strive, make effort, diligent
Jōyō kanji, taught in grade 3
JLPT level N4
1066 of 2500 most used kanji in newspapers


Stroke order

On reading compounds

  • 勉強 【ベンキョウ】 study, diligence, working hard, experience, lesson (for the future), discount, price reduction
  • 勉学 【ベンガク】 study, pursuit of knowledge
  • 猛勉 【モウベン】 studying hard, cramming
  • のこ勉 【ノコベン】 staying behind after school to do private study

Kun reading compounds

  • 努める 【つとめる】 to endeavor (to do), to endeavour, to try hard, to work hard, to strive, to make an effort, to exert oneself, to devote oneself, to be committed (to doing)


Japanese names:
ひこ、 やつ
Mandarin Chinese (pinyin):


  • esforzarse
  • ejercitarse


  • esforço


  • exercice
317 A Guide To Reading and Writing Japanese (Florence Sakade)
413 A Guide To Reading and Writing Japanese 3rd edition (Henshall, Seeley and De Groot)
390 A Guide To Remembering Japanese Characters (Kenneth G. Henshall)
946 A New Dictionary of Kanji Usage
228 Classic Nelson (Andrew Nelson)
852 Essential Kanji (P.G. O’Neill)
129 Japanese Kanji Flashcards (Max Hodges and Tomoko Okazaki)
1263 Japanese Names (P.G. O’Neill)
2.11 Japanese for Busy People
735 Kanji and Kana (Spahn and Hadamitzky)
748 Kanji and Kana, 2nd Edition (Spahn and Hadamitzky)
140 Kanji in Context (Nishiguchi and Kono)
219 Kodansha Compact Kanji Guide
4113 Kodansha Kanji Dictionary (Jack Halpern)
2088 Kodansha Kanji Learner’s Dictionary (Jack Halpern)
2829 Kodansha Kanji Learner’s Dictionary, 2nd Edition (Jack Halpern)
1994 Les Kanjis dans la tete (Yves Maniette)
2384P Morohashi
3318 New Japanese English Character Dictionary (Jack Halpern)
543 New Nelson (John Haig)
1975 Remembering The Kanji (James Heisig)
2129 Remembering The Kanji, 6th edition (James Heisig)
366 Tuttle Kanji Cards (Alexander Kask)
2557 2001 Kanji
2n8.1 The Kanji Dictionary
3-8-2 SKIP code
2421.2 Four corner code
1-42-57 JIS X 0208-1997 kuten code
52c9 Unicode hex code