1. valence band
Wikipedia definition
2. Valence bandIn solids, the valence band is the highest range of electron energies in which electrons are normally present at absolute zero temperature. The valence electrons are bound to individual atoms, as opposed to conduction electrons, which can move freely within the atomic lattice of the material. On a graph of the electronic band structure of a material, the valence band is located below the conduction band, separated from it in insulators and semiconductors by a band gap.
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