7 strokes
power, force
toil, diligent, as much as possible
Jōyō kanji, taught in grade 4
JLPT level N3
749 of 2500 most used kanji in newspapers


Stroke order

On reading compounds

  • 努 【ド】 third principle of the Eight Principles of Yong, downward stroke
  • 努力 【ドリョク】 effort, exertion, endeavour, endeavor, hard work, striving

Kun reading compounds

  • 努める 【つとめる】 to endeavor (to do), to endeavour, to try hard, to work hard, to strive, to make an effort, to exert oneself, to devote oneself, to be committed (to doing)


Mandarin Chinese (pinyin):
nu3, nao2


  • esfuerzo
  • esforzarse
  • hacer un esfuerzo


  • Trabalho duro
  • diligente


  • s'efforcer
  • faire tout son possible
  • travailler dur
  • appliqué
481 A Guide To Reading and Writing Japanese (Florence Sakade)
582 A Guide To Reading and Writing Japanese 3rd edition (Henshall, Seeley and De Groot)
555 A Guide To Remembering Japanese Characters (Kenneth G. Henshall)
795 A New Dictionary of Kanji Usage
717 Classic Nelson (Andrew Nelson)
566 Essential Kanji (P.G. O’Neill)
368 Japanese Kanji Flashcards (Max Hodges and Tomoko Okazaki)
728 Japanese Names (P.G. O’Neill)
1595 Kanji and Kana (Spahn and Hadamitzky)
1702 Kanji and Kana, 2nd Edition (Spahn and Hadamitzky)
827 Kanji in Context (Nishiguchi and Kono)
212 Kodansha Compact Kanji Guide
3154 Kodansha Kanji Dictionary (Jack Halpern)
1618 Kodansha Kanji Learner’s Dictionary (Jack Halpern)
2204 Kodansha Kanji Learner’s Dictionary, 2nd Edition (Jack Halpern)
873 Les Kanjis dans la tete (Yves Maniette)
2314 Morohashi
2547 New Japanese English Character Dictionary (Jack Halpern)
527 New Nelson (John Haig)
865 Remembering The Kanji (James Heisig)
929 Remembering The Kanji, 6th edition (James Heisig)
488 Tuttle Kanji Cards (Alexander Kask)
1745 2001 Kanji
2g5.6 The Kanji Dictionary
2-5-2 SKIP code
4742.7 Four corner code
1-37-56 JIS X 0208-1997 kuten code
52aa Unicode hex code