1. shorteningFood, cooking
Wikipedia definition
2. ShorteningShortening is any fat that is solid at room temperature and used to make crumbly pastry. The reason it is called shortening is that it prevents cross-linkage between gluten molecules. Cross linking gives dough elasticity. In pastries such as cake, which should not be elastic, shortening is used. Although butter is solid at room temperature and is frequently used in making pastry, the term "shortening" seldom refers to butter but is more closely related to margarine.
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